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Top Science-based Cancer causing Agents that you can avoid at Home, School, Office or Work

What is a cancer causing agent/substance Called?

A cancer causing agent is called a carcinogen. It can either be a radionuclide or radiation and it can be involved directly in causing cancer. This may be due to its ability to destroy the genome or disrupt cellular metabolic activities.[1]

According to Ian Lang tree at Disabled World, a carcinogen is defined as any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.[2]

According to Dictionary.com, carcinogens can also be known as poisons, killers, toxins, mutagens, health hazards or even deadly chemicals.[3]

Evidence based cancer causing agents and prevention measures
Cancer Ribbon

Classification/Types/Groups of Carcinogens

According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), carcinogenic substances can be classified into four major categories which are: group 1, group 2A, group 2B and group 3.[4]

Group 1

There is some evidence of strong mechanisms in humans and animals.

Alternatively, an agent can be in this group when there is little or no evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is clear evidence in experimental animals when used for a study.

An agent is also approved to be in this category if there is proved evidence that the agent acts through a relevant mechanism in the body.[5]  Agents in this group can be categorized as substances, mixtures or exposure substances.

The various types of substances that exist include:

Aflatoxin

Aflatoxin are a family of poisons that are produced by certain fungi that are found on agricultural crops such as maize (corn), peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts.

The main fungi that produce aflatoxins are called Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These viruses are abundant in warm and humid regions of the world.

Aflatoxin-producing fungi can contaminate crops in the field, at harvest, and during storage in homes. Exposure to aflatoxins has been linked to an increased risk of liver cancer.

Group 2: Probably carcinogenic to humans

This group is made up of agents for which, at one extreme, the degree of evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is almost enough, as well as those for which, at the other extreme, there are no human data but for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.

Agents are assigned to either Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) or Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) based on the epidemiological and experimental evidence of carcinogenicity and mechanistic as well as other relevant data.

The terms carcinogenic and possibly carcinogenic do not have quantitative significance and are used simply as descriptors of different levels of evidence of human carcinogenicity. Carcinogenic in this regard signifies a higher level of evidence than possibly carcinogenic.

They are also grouped into substances, mixture and exposure circumstances substances as follows:

Group 2A:

The agent is probably carcinogenic to human.
This category is used when there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and convincing evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.

In some cases, an agent may be classified in this category when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence that the carcinogenesis is mediated by a mechanism that also operates in humans.

Exceptionally, an agent may be classified in this category solely on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.

An agent may be assigned to this category if it clearly belongs, based on mechanistic considerations, to a class of agents for which one or more members have been classified in Group 1 or Group 2A[6].

Group 2B:

This category is used for agents for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.

It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.

In some instances, an agent for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data may be placed in this group.

An agent may be classified in this category solely on the basis of strong evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data. [7]

Group 3

In this group according IARC, there is evidence of carcinogenicity which is inadequate in humans and inadequate or limited in experimental animals.

Evidence of carcinogenicity is inadequate in humans but sufficient in experimental animals. However, strong evidence that the mechanism of carcinogenicity in experimental animals does not operate in human beings.

Agents in Group 3 are not determined to be non-carcinogenic or safe overly, but often means that further research is needed. They also exist as substances, mixtures or exposure circumstance agents.[8]

Group 4

There is evidence that suggests that this category depicts lack of carcinogenicity in humans and in experimental animals.

There is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but evidence suggesting lack of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.

It is consistently and strongly supported by a broad range of mechanistic and other relevant data. [9] The only agent under this category is caprolactam.

Cancer Causing Agents (Science-Based Agents with sufficient evidence

in humans)

The cancer causing agents are grouped into three by the International Agency for research on Cancer. The three categories are exposure circumstances, substances and mixtures. The various types of exposure circumstances alluded to include:

Tobacco smoking:

This is done for purposes of stimulation which forms the bulk of cancer effects of tobacco. Smoking of tobacco is currently done in homes, public places and even work places in areas reserved as smoking zones.[10]

Cigarette smoking may lead to cancer
Smoking

Sunlamps and sunbeds:

This affects mostly people who sunbathe for leisure. There is emission of ultraviolet radiation which could cause skin cancer and premature skin aging.

Aluminum production:

This affects people at work place. There is a reported increase in lung and bladder cancer risks in people who work in aluminum reduction plants. The fumes of chemicals that may be inhaled for a long period of time bring about cancer.

Arsenic in drinking water:

This is likely to affect you at home. If at all the water company supplying with water does not take into consideration the possibility of having arsenic acid in water supplied, then you are likely to be exposed to cancer of the liver, lung, kidney and bladder.

Auramine production

You can use auramine as an antiseptic agent in homes and work places. Similarly, it is used to make dyes in industries. Study points out that you are likely to get tumors of the bladder if you inhale harmful agents like formaldehyde and sulphur in the course of auramine manufacture.

Chimney sweeping:

This is an activity that you engage in daily at home. Long term exposure has reported an increase in cancer which is now corded chimney sweep cancer. It is likely to be caused by inhalation or accidental ingestion of coal and burnt wood fumes and residue.

Coal tar distillation:

This is an agent that would affect you at work place. After the distillation of coal, there is a remainder of coal tar pitch which is a black liquid.  Coal and coal tar pitch contains many chemicals that carcinogens like benzene. If you are exposed to these chemicals by any means, then you could probably get cancer

Coke fuel production:

If you are working in a coking plant and coal tar plant, then you are likely to get lung and kidney cancers. This results from exposure to coke oven emissions.

Passive smoking:

It is also called secondhand smoking.  This is an activity that takes place in many places and mostly social places. You are likely to get lung cancer in case you consistently smoke passively. You are also likely to get other cancers like larynx and pharynx.

Occupational exposure as a painter:

There are proven studies that link working as a painter and risk of cancer. There are reported deaths such as bladder and leukemia due exposure to substances like benzene which are found in paint. There are also cases of lung cancer but as a result of exposure to particles that contain lead chromate and asbestos in paint.

The following substance mixture are key agents that could lead to cancer:

Aflatoxin

Aflatoxin are a family of poisons that are produced by certain fungi that are found on agricultural crops such as maize (corn), peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts.

The main fungi that produce aflatoxins are called Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These viruses are abundant in warm and humid regions of the world.

Aflatoxin-producing fungi can contaminate crops in the field, at harvest, and during storage in homes. Exposure to aflatoxins has been linked to an increased risk of liver cancer. [11]

Alcoholic beverages

Alcohol forms part our day to day delicacies that we love enjoying. However, what is not known is that the chronic consumption could lead to cancer. How and which type of cancer are you likely to get?

Chronic consumption of alcohol has been proven by the Report on carcinogens, a report done by the National Toxicology Program of the US Department of Health and Human Services.

Alcohol can be cancer causing agent
Alcoholic Drinks

Bisphenol A

It is abbreviated as BPA is a building block of polycarbonate plastic. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals around the world. It finds use in hard plastics, food cans, drink cans, receipts, and dental sealants.

Chromium Hexavalent compounds.

The Element chromium is not naturally occurring; chromium (IV) compounds are highly corrosive and strong oxidizing agents and so they are rarely found in nature. Coal-burning power plants the largest industrial sources of chromium (IV).

Such compounds are also used as corrosion inhibitors in the leather tanning process, in the manufacture of dyes and pigments, and in wood preserving, chrome plating, and steel and other alloy production. Exposure is through inhalation, ingestion (chromium leached into soil and water), and dermal contact.

They have been found to be linked to lung, nasal, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Chromium hexavalent compounds are a known human carcinogen.

Dioxins

These are a group of chemicals formed as unintentional byproducts of industrial processes involving chlorine, such as waste incineration, chemical manufacturing, and pulp and paper bleaching.

Dioxins products include polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs) and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Exposure is through the ingestion of contaminated foods and, to a lesser extent, dermal contact. Dioxins accumulate in fat cells and degrade very slowly in the environment.

The cancer classification depends on the dioxin: 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD (Agent Orange) is known to be a human carcinogen; some other dioxins are probable or possible human carcinogens

Formaldehyde

It can be found in a variety of building and home decoration products (as urea-formaldehyde resins and phenol-formaldehyde resin). It is also used as a preservative and disinfectant. Exposure is through inhalation and dermal contact. Automobile exhaust is the greatest contributor to formaldehyde concentrations in ambient air.

Construction materials, furnishings, and cigarettes account for most formaldehyde in indoor air. Formaldehyde has caused nasal cancer in rats after long term exposure; it is linked to leukemia and nasopharygeal cancer in humans. It is a known human carcinogen

Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)

These compounds can be found at work places and even homes. They are used as flame retardants in furniture, computers, electronics, medical equipment, and mattresses. Exposure is through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact.

Two of the common commercial formulations, penta- and octa-BDE are no longer in market. These compounds are highly persistent in the environment, they are endocrine disruptors. PBDEs are linked to liver cancer in laboratory animals, but are not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in people

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

This compound as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds: combustion from wood and fuel in residential heating, coal burners, automobiles, diesel-fueled engines, refuse fires, and grilled meats. They are found in coal tar and coal tar pitch, used for roofing and surface coatings.

Exposure to these substances which are lipophilic results from inhalation of polluted air, wood smoke, and tobacco smoke, and ingestion of contaminated food and water. PAHs are reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen, according to the National Toxicology Program. IARC lists them as probably or possibly carcinogenic.

Vinyl Chloride

It is used by plastics companies in the production of PVCs and copolymers. The resultant cancer effects are likely to get hold of you at the work place. Exposure is largely occupational, and results from inhalation, ingestion or dermal contact.

Exposure is very low in the general population. Exposure to vinyl chloride is linked to the development of liver cancer and weakly associated with brain cancer. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen

The available information provided by the research indicates that, the more alcohol a person drinks particularly the more alcohol a person drinks regularly over time the higher his or her risk of developing an alcohol-associated cancer.[12]

Rubber production

According to the literature reviewed in previous IARC Monographs (IARC, 1982, 1987) there was sufficient evidence of a causal association between exposures in the rubber-manufacturing industry and cancer. In the IARC Monograph (IARC, 1982) it was concluded that there was sufficient evidence of an excess occurrence of urinary bladder cancer in workers in the rubber-manufacturing industry.[13]

Cancer Causing Agents (Agents with limited evidence in humans)

Asbestos

Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur naturally in the environment. They exist as bundles of fibers that can be separated into thin, durable threads. These fibers are resistant to heat, fire, and chemicals and do not conduct electricity.

It is for these reasons that asbestos has been used widely in many industries. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the EPA and the International Agency for Research on Cancer have shown that asbestos is likely to cause cancer of the lung and mesothelioma (cancer of the thin membranes lining the chest and abdomen)

Human Papilloma virus

According to the National Cancer Institute, Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses. More than 40 HPV types can be easily spread through direct sexual contact, from the skin and mucous membranes of infected people to the skin and mucous membranes of their partners.

The many types include: cervical cancer, anal cancer, or pharyngeal cancer (middle part of throat including the soft palate, base of the tongue and tonsils)[14]

The printing process chemicals.

The printing process is accompanied by a cohort of chemicals which are used as pigments, carriers and additives. Pigments used include carbon black and titanium dioxide. Most of the pigments under use are

  • Azo compounds,
  • Antraquinones and triarylmethane dyes
  • Phthalocyanines

These compounds are likely to be pre-disposition factors to cancers of the urinary bladder, cancer of the kidney, cancer of the oropharynx, lung cancer and leukemia. Therefore if you are constantly involved in printing, then you are likely to subject yourself to some of the cancers listed.[15]

Lead compounds:

Lead and lead compounds are reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies

in experimental animals. Lead exposure has been associated with increased risk of lung, stomach, and urinary-bladder cancer in diverse human populations (Fu and Boffetta 1995, Steenland and Boffetta 2000, NTP 2003)[16] 

Pickled foods and vegetables:

There is a likelihood of high prevalence of gastric cancer in areas where pickled vegetables are consumed in large amounts.

Helicobacter pylori:

If your gastric system is colonized by helicobacter pylori, then you are likely to develop adenocarcinoma. It causes chronic inflammation and ulceration of the system. There is limitation in evidence because only a few individuals who are colonized develop gastric cancer. The encounter with this bacteria may homes, work places or even social places.

Fermented food products

Fermented foods as a group constitute a wide variety of foods. They are not consumed in isolation and traditional cuisines high in some types of fermented foods also include other foods that may be considered healthy or less healthy.

Studies have identified components of fermented foods that influence risk of some cancers. The compounds include N-nitroso compounds in pickled vegetables and fish. Interactions between diet and microbial infections may increase risk.[17]  Fermented products are found in homes and manufacturing plants.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1

There is a great link between HIV-1 infection and Kaposi’s sarcoma. This is from a study conducted, 25 out of 33 cases considered and having HIV seropositivity in the population. An alternative study to support this was conducted and linked HIV to a Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.[18]

Red meat

There is no clear-cut communication by IARC, as there is now no sufficient evidence for IARC to rule that processed meat ‘definitely’ causes cancer, and that red meat ‘probably’ causes cancer.

Little evidence from research points out that the problems seem to start when a chemical called haem which is part of the red pigment in the blood, hemoglobin, is broken down in our gut to form a family of chemicals called N-nitroso compounds. These have been found to damage the cells that line the bowel.

Therefore, other cells in the bowel lining have to replicate more in order to heal. And it’s this ‘extra’ replication that can increase the chance of errors developing in the cells’ DNA precipitates cancer.[19]

Red meat can be possible cancer causing agent
Red Meat

Textile industry manufacturing:

If you work in a textile industry for about a year, you are likely to be prone to various types of cancers that include: breast cancer, cervical cancer and gall bladder cancer.[20]

Welding fumes:

If you are working with stainless steel during welding, it may produce welding fumes containing nickel and chromium. In case you have asthma, exposure to nickel can make your illness worse. Chromium can aggravate or cause sinus problems. Both nickel and chromium may cause cancer (Safety and Health Fact Sheet No. 4, American Welding Society; Welding Fumes and Gases, Center to Protect Workers’ Rights).[21]

Bitumen

There is no conclusive research to link these compounds to cancer but IARC termed it carcinogenic based on the little research available. A number of studies carried out point out that these compounds lead to an increased risk of cancer of the lung and suggests increased risk for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, stomach, skin and bladder[22]

Carpentry and joinery:

The link between nasal cancer other than adenocarcinoma and exposure to wood dust among carpenters and joiners, was found in some studies.

However if this is true, it cannot be ascribed to any specific exposure. If you are a carpenters or a joiner, you work with impregnated wood, use a variety of types of wood and are exposed to many chemicals used in carpentry

Several studies raise the possibility of an increased risk of Hodgkin’s disease. On the other hand, a number of studies suggest an association between work as a joiner and nasal adenocarcinoma, but it is possible that the workers involved may have worked in the furniture industry[23]

Hairdressers and barbers

There have been reports that if you are working as a barber or a hairdresser then you are pre-exposed to cancer. The components of the chemicals that constitute dyes used in these work places are carcinogenic and are likely to cause skin cancer.[24]

High frequency radiations

Radiations of high frequency like the UV and gamma radiations are termed as ionizing radiations. Therefore, they have enough energy to remove an electron from (ionize) an atom or molecule. This can damage the DNA inside of cells, which can result in cancer[25]

Radiofrequency radiations:

They include radio waves and microwaves. They are the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is a type of non-ionizing radiation.

Non-ionizing radiation has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to ionize (remove charged particles such as electrons).

Radiofrequency radiation has lower energy than some other types of non-ionizing radiation, like visible light and infrared, but it has higher energy than extremely low-frequency (ELF) radiation. If RF radiation is absorbed in large enough amounts by materials containing water, such as food, fluids, and body tissues, it can produce heat.

This can lead to burns and tissue damage. Although RF radiation does not cause cancer directly, by damaging DNA in cells the way ionizing radiation does, there has been concern that some forms of non-ionizing radiation might have biological effects that could result in cancer in some circumstances.[26]

Talc-based body powder

Talcum powder is made from talc, a mineral made up mainly of the elements magnesium, silicon, and oxygen. As a powder, it absorbs moisture well and helps cut down on friction, making it useful for keeping skin dry and helping to prevent rashes.

It is widely used in cosmetic products such as baby powder and adult body and facial powders, as well as in a number of other consumer products. In its natural form, some talc contains asbestos, a substance known to cause cancers in and around the lungs when inhaled[27]

Petroleum refining:

Some pre-cautionary measures should be applied in interpreting the relative risks for cancer in cohort studies of petroleum refinery workers. They are reports and series that describe clusters of skin cancer cases (squamous-cell carcinoma) among wax pressmen who had been exposed to crude paraffin wax saturated with aromatic oils.

Mortality from leukemia was significantly elevated in some other refinery industries. Mortality increased with duration employed and also with time since first employment Stomach cancer mortality has also been reported in some refineries. Kidney, pancreas, prostate and lung cancers are also common in refinery industries.

Prevention Measures against Cancer.

There are various preventive or precautionary measures that you could adopt in order to avoid falling victim of some of these carcinogenic compounds:

Many research agencies and institutions try to come up and device methods to deal with cancer as a disease. The National Cancer Institute for instance points out that “Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.”

Mayo clinic on the other hand points out cancer prevention techniques and mechanisms. They are summarized in generally as below:

Avoid the use of tobacco:

The use of tobacco is a notorious cause of quite a number of cancers and its stop is an added advantage in terms of helping you reduce the risk of contracting cancer.

It is also prudent to be aware that tobacco use does not only cause cancer to the immediate user but also those in the neighborhood. Measures should be put in place to limit the likelihoods of exposure to this environments.

Making up your mind to avoid use of tobacco is one of the best health practices that you can adopt for a healthy daily living.

Eating a healthy diet:

There are various definitions of a healthy diet but it is recommended that you eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Your diet should comprise of fruits, vegetables and other foods from plant sources such as whole grains and beans.

More to that, avoid likelihoods of getting obesity. This is possible if you eat lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods, including refined sugars and fat from animal sources.

Similarly, if you choose to drink alcohol, do so only with great moderation. The risk of various types of cancer including cancer of the breast, colon, lung, kidney and liver  likely  increases with the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time you have  been drinking regularly.

Apart from that, you should limit processed meats. A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that eating large amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancer.

Maintain a healthy weight and remain physically active:

The habit of maintaining a healthy weight might to some extent lower the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and kidney.

Physical activity counts on the other hand helps too. In addition to helping you control your weight, physical activity on its own might lower the risk of breast cancer and colon cancer.

Many adults who engage themselves in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits. But for substantial health benefits, strive to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous aerobic physical activity.

You can also do a combination of moderate and vigorous activity. As a general goal, include at least 30 minutes of physical activity in your daily routine and if you can do more, the better.

Limit and prevent exposure to sunlight

Skin cancer comes out to be one of the most common kinds of cancer. Yet still, it is one of the most preventable. You could try some of these tips:

  1. Avoid midday sun
  2. Stay out of the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. when the sun’s rays are strongest.
  3. Stay in the shade when you’re outdoors, stay in the shade as much as possible.
  4. Sunglasses and a broad-brimmed hat may help too.
  5. Cover exposed areas.
  6. Wear tightly woven loose fitting clothing that covers as much of your skin as possible.
  7. Opt for bright or dark colors which reflect more ultraviolet radiation than pastels or bleached cotton.
  8. Don’t skimp on sunscreen. Use generous amounts of sunscreen when you’re outdoors, and reapply often.
  9. Avoid tanning beds and sunlamps.

Get immunized

Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections since some cancers are of viral origin. Make sure that you consult with your doctor about immunization against infections such as those of:

  1. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for certain high-risk adults such as adults who are sexually active but not in a mutually monogamous relationship, people with sexually transmitted infections, intravenous drug users, and health care or public safety workers who might be exposed to infected blood or body fluids.
  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can lead to cervical and other genital cancers as well as squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. The HPV vaccine is recommended for girls and boys ages 11 and 12. It is also available to both men and women age 26 or younger who didn’t have the vaccine as adolescents. 

Avoid risky behaviors

This another effective cancer prevention tactic. Try as much as possible to avoid risky behaviors that can lead to infections that in turn might increase the risk of cancer. Some of the practices are:

It is good to limit your number of sexual partners and use a condom when you have sex. The more sexual partners you have in your lifetime, the more likely you are to contract a sexually transmitted infection such as HIV or HPV.

People who have HIV or AIDS have a higher risk of rectal cancer, liver and lung. HPV is most often associated with cervical cancer.

Don’t share needles.

Sharing needles with an infected drug user can lead to HIV, as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C which can increase the risk of liver cancer.

Drug abuse

If you have concerns about drug abuse or addiction always seek professional help.

Get regular medical care

We are all unique in our own sense. It is always good to check our progress by considering a medical care and checkup from time to time.

Regular self-exams and screenings for various types of cancers such as cancer of the skin, colon, cervix and breast can increase your chances of discovering cancer early during the onset, and therefore the treatment is most likely to be successful. Due to our genetic differences, always check with your doctor about the best cancer screening schedule for you.[28]

More areas for you to check on are as below:[29] This is according to Healthguide.org, a guide to mental, emotional and social health.

Avoid foods that look or smell moldy this is because   they are likely to contain Aflatoxin, a strong carcinogen. Aflatoxin is most commonly found on moldy peanuts. Nuts will stay fresh longer if kept in the refrigerator or freezer.

Consider going easy on the barbecue:  Burning or charring meats creates carcinogenic substances. If you choose to barbecue, don’t overcook the meat and be sure to cook at the proper temperature (not too hot).

Reduce consumption of red and processed meat:

This a crucial point and a golden tip that you would consider. First of all, meat lacks fiber and other nutrients that have been shown to have cancer-protective properties. It has been found out that industrially made or processed meat often contains antibiotics and hormones since the animals may have been raised on feed containing GMOs, markers for an increased cancer risk

Most red meat also contains saturated fat, even though the health consequences of that are not clearly spelt out. All in all, many health organizations maintain that eating saturated fat from any type of meat can compromise your health, a team of  other experts suggest that saturated fat from organic, grass-fed meat doesn’t pose the same health risks as meat from industrially-raised animals.

Nutrition experts on the other hand tend to agree with a suggestion that that processed meats such bacon, sausages, hotdogs, pepperoni, and salami contain the highest cancer risk, likely due to the nitrate preservatives or other substances used in the processing of the meat.[30]

Reduce aflatoxin

Make sure you only buy major commercial brands of nuts and nut butters. More to that, ensure you discard nuts that look moldy, discolored, or shriveled.


Sources and References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinogen

[2] http://www.disabled-world.com/health/cancer/carcinogen-list.php

[3] http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/carcinogen

[4] ttp://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/UCM215717.pdf

[5] https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=301

[6] https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=301

[7] https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=301

[8] http://wiki.cancer.org.au/policy/IARC_classifications

[9] http://wiki.cancer.org.au/policy/IARC_classifications

[10] ttps://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/books/iarc50/IARC_Ch4.2.2_web.pdf

[11] https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/aflatoxins

[12] http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/generalinformationaboutcarcinogens/known-and-probable-human-carcinogens

[13] ttp://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100F/mono100F-36.pdf

[14] https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-fact-sheet

[15] http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol65/printing.html

[16] https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/lead.pdf

[17] ttp://www.aicr.org/assets/docs/pdf/research/rescon2013/lampe-fermented-foods.pdf

[18] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9184191

[19] ttp://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2015/10/26/processed-meat-and-cancer-what-you-need-to-know/

[20] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14767217

[21] http://www.welding-rod-dangers.com/exposure/exposure.htm

[22] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Now-bitumen-under-WHO-lens-for-cancer-risk/articleshow/8730432.cms

[23] ttp://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/suppl7/carpentryjoinery.html

[24] http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/102088.php

[25] ttp://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/radiationexposureandcancer/radiofrequency-radiation

[26] ttp://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/radiationexposureandcancer/radiofrequency-radiation

[27] ttp://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/athome/talcum-powder-and-cancer

[28] http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/cancer-prevention/art-20044816?pg=2

[29] http://www.helpguide.org/home-pages/diet-weight-loss.htm

[30] http://www.helpguide.org/articles/diet-weight-loss/anti-cancer-diet.htm

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